Prof. Emeritus Moshe Eizenberg

Selected Publications
Research Topics

Prof. Eizenberg received his DSc degree in Physics at the Technion in 1977. He spent two years as a post-doctoral research associate in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of Cornell University, and one year as a visiting scientist at IBM – T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights. In 1980 he joined the Department of Materials Engineering and the Solid State Institute of the Technion. Currently he is also a member of the Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute. He was a visiting scientist at IBM T.J. Watson Research Center – Yorktown Heights, N.Y., Bell Laboratories – Murray Hill, N.J., The University of Paris (XI) – Orsay, Columbia University – New York, and at Applied Materials – Santa Clara, Ca.

Prof. Eizenberg has served on many national and Technion committees. In the years 1998-2001 he served as Dean (Chairman) of the Department of Materials Engineering. In the years 2002-2008 Prof. Eizenberg served as the executive Vice-President for Research of the Technion. In this capacity, in addition to many of his academic and administrative responsibilities, he served as a member of the Technion International Board of Governors and as a member on the boards of the following organizations: TRDF (Technion Research and Development Foundation Ltd.); EORD (Electrooptic Research and Development Company Ltd.); Technion Seed Ltd.; and numerous Technion research institutes. Furthermore, he was Chairman of the Board of Dimotech Ltd. (holding company for the Technion’s start-up industries) and TEIC Ltd. (Technion Entrepreneurial Incubator Company). In 2007-2008, he also served as Managing Director of TRDF. In 2011-2013 he was member of the Technion Managing Council.

Currently Prof. Eizenberg is the Dean of Graduate Studies and the Head of the Materials Engineering Program at Guangdong Technion Israel Institute of Technology, and member of the Board of Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute in New York City.

Prof. Eizenberg has carried out research in diverse areas of materials, including semiconductors, metal surfaces and thin films, and dielectric thin films, with the aim of correlating physical properties such as structure and composition with electrical properties. His recent research focuses on interconnects and metallization technologies (front-end and back-end) for microelectronic devices.

The realization of microelectronic devices with nanometric dimensions relies on the successful integration of new materials into the existing production scheme. When the thickness of SiO2, which was used as the gate dielectric in traditional MOS devices, was reduced to few nanometers due to the scaling rules imposed by Moore’s law, tunneling current became significant. The increased leakage degraded the performance of devices, by changing the turn-on voltage of FETs and decreasing the retention time of capacitors. Replacing the SiO2 with a high-k dielectric enabled using a thicker gate dielectric layer, while maintaining high capacitance values and FET channel conductance.

The required replacement of SiO2 as the gate oxide was followed by an additional process: the replacement of the traditional doped poly-Si electrode by a metallic gate. The selection of a suitable metal/ high-k stack depends both on device requirements and material properties. And finally, future scaling of devices will be achieved by using high mobility (high injection velocity) and low bandgap semiconductors as channel materials on a Si platform. The leading candidate for an n-type channel material is InGaAs, and Ge is for p-type. In parallel there is an effort to use wide bandgap semiconductors, such as GaN, for power electronics applications.

Eizenberg’s group has responded to these challenges by putting a strong emphasis on studying metal/high-k interfaces for future memory and high-performance devices. Various materials, such as Al2O3, HfO2 and lanthanide oxides (e.g. Gd2O3) as well as some nitrides were studied in his laboratory as gate dielectrics, and the interface between these dielectrics and various metals was explored. More recently these gate stacks are studied on top of other semiconductors than Si such as Ge, InGaAs, and GaN. This important research enables understanding the correlation between materials properties (e.g. interface composition, structure and binding) and electrical properties of metal/high-k/semiconductor stacks. In particular, the group has important achievements in understanding the effect of various properties on the effective work-function at the interface. Such an understanding enables to develop processes for tuning the Fermi-level position at metal/high-k interfaces.

  • Oren Zonensain, Sivan Fadida, Ilanit Fisher, Juwen Gao, Michal Danek, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Thermal Stability of Atomic Layer Deposited WCxNy Electrodes for Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices”, Appl. Phys. 123, (2018), 035101.
  •  Matthew Kwan, Roy Winter, P. Mutin, Moshe Eizenberg, and Ganpati Ramanath, “Tailoring Al-SiO2 Interfacial Work Function Using an Organophosphonate Nanolayer”, Phys. Letts. 111, (2017),121602.
  •  Nadiia Kolomiiets, Valery V Afanas’ev, Andre Stesmans, Sivan Fadida and Moshe Eizenberg, “Metal- and Oxide-Related Hydrogen-Induced Dipoles at the Pt/HfO2 Interface”, Microelectronic Engineering, 178, (2017), 304.
  • Igor Krylov, Dan Ritter and Moshe Eizenberg, “HfxAlyO Ternary Dielectrics for InGaAs Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors”, Appl. Phys. 122, (2017), 034505.
  •  Iacopetti, P. Shekhter, R. Winter, T. C. U. Tromm, J. Schubert and M. Eizenberg, “The Asymmetric Band Structure and Electrical Behavior of the GdScO3/GaN System”, Appl. Phys. 121, (2017), 205303.
  •  Palumbo, R. Winter, K. Tang, P. C. McIntyre, and M. Eizenberg, “Investigation of Stress Induced Interface States in Al2O3/InGaAs Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors”, J. Appl. Phys. 121, (2017), 174105.
  •  Roy Winter, Matthew Kwan, P. Mutin, Ganpati Ramanath, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Chemical Bonding and Nanomolecular Length Effects on Work Function at Au-Organophosphonate-HfO2 Interfaces”, Phys. Letts. 110, (2017), 181604.
  •  Shlomo Mehari, Arkady Gavrilov, Moshe Eizenberg, and Dan Ritter, “Identification of Energy and Spatial Location of Electron Traps in AlGaN/GaN HFET Structures”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 64, (2017) 1642.
  • Felix Palumbo, Sebastian Pazos, Fernando Aguirre, Roy Winter, Igor Krilov, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Temperature Dependence of Trapping Effects in Metal Gates / Al2O3/ InGaAs Stacks”, Solid State Electronics, 132, (2017), 12.
  • Avi Shriki, Roy Winter, Yonatan Calahorra, Yaron Kauffmann, Guy Ankonina, Moshe Eizenberg, and Dan Ritter, “Formation Mechanism of Gold-based and Gold-free Ohmic Contacts to GaN HFETs”, Appl. Phys. 121, (2017), 065301.
  • Igor Krylov, Boaz Pokroy, Dan Ritter, and Moshe Eizenberg, “The Passivation of InGaAs Interface States by Thin AlN Interface Layers for Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) Applications”, Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 35, (2017), 011205.
  • Shlomo Mehari, Arkady Gavrilov, Moshe Eizenberg, and Dan Ritter, “The Role of Barrier Transport and Traps in the Trade-off between Low Off-State Leakage Current and Improved Dynamic Behavior of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 63, (2016), 4702.
  • Aguirre, S. Pazos, F.R.M. Palumbo, S. Fadida, R. Winter, and M. Eizenberg, “Effect of Forming Gas Annealing on the Degradation Properties of Ge-based MOS Stacks”, J. Appl. Phys. 123, (2018), 134103.
  • Roy Winter, Pini Shekhter, Kechao Tang, Luca Floreano, Alberto Verdini, Paul McIntyre, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Effects of Titanium Layer Oxygen Scavenging on the High-k/InGaAs Interface”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8, (2016), 16979.
  • Igor Krylov, Boaz Pokroy, Moshe Eizenberg, and Dan Ritter, “A Comparison between HfO2/Al2O3 Nano-laminates and HfxAlyO as the Dielectric Material in InGaAs Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Capacitors”, Appl. Phys. 120, (2016), 124505.
  • Igor Krylov, Boaz Pokroy, Moshe Eizenberg, and Dan Ritter, “A Comparison between HfO2/Al2O3 Nano-laminates and HfxAlyO as the Dielectric Material in InGaAs Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Capacitors”, Appl. Phys. 120, (2016), 124505.
  • Fadida, L. Nyns, S. Van Elshocht and M. Eizenberg, “The Effect of a Ti Layer Inserted into the Gate Metal on the Electrical Properties of Ge-based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitors”, J. Electronic Materials, 46, (2016), 386.
  • Shekhter, D. Schwendt, Y. Amouyal, T. F. Wietler, H. J. Osten, and M. Eizenberg, “Strain-induced Phase Variation and Dielectric Constant Enhancement of Epitaxial Gd2O3”, J. Appl. Phys. 120, (2016), 014101.
  • Winter, I. Krylov, C. Cytermann, K. Tang, J. Ahn, P. C. McIntyre, and M. Eizenberg, “Fermi Level Pinning in Metal/Al2O3/InGaAs Gate Stack after Post Metallization Annealing”, J. Appl. Phys. 118, (2015), 055302.
  • Oren Zonensain, Sivan Fadida, Ilanit Fisher, Juwen Gao, Kaushik Chattopadhyay, Greg Harm, Tom Mountsier, Michal Danek, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Work Function Tuning of Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposited WCxNy Electrodes for Metal/ Oxide/ Semiconductor Devices”,  Lett. 106, (2015), 082107.
  • Fadida, P. Shekhter, D. Cvetko, L. Floreano, A. Verdini, L. Nyns, S. Van Elshocht, I. Kymissis, and M. Eizenberg, “Direct Observation of Both Contact and Remote Oxygen Scavenging of GeO2in an MOSFET Stack”, J. Appl. Phys.116, (2014), 164101.
  • Shlomo Solomon Mehari, Eilam Yalon, Arkady Gavrilov, David Mistele, Gad Bahir, Moshe Eizenberg, and Dan Ritter, “Comparison of Simulations and Measurements of Gate Leakage Currents in Metal/Al2O3/GaN/AlGaN/AlN/GaN Capacitors”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 61, (2014), 3558.
  • Shekhter, F. Palumbo, K. Cohen Weinfeld, and M. Eizenberg “X Ray Phoroelectron Analysis of Oxide-Semiconductor Interface after Breakdown in Al2O3/InGaAs Stacks”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, (2014), 102908.
  • Osten, D. Schwendt, A. Chaudhuri, A. Fissel, P. Shekhter and M. Eizenberg, “Tuning Dielectric Properties of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on Silicon”, ECS Transactions 61, 3 (2014).
  • Palumbo, R. Winter, I. Krylov and M. Eizenberg, “Characteristics of Stress-Induced Defects under Positive Bias in High-k / InGaAs Stacks”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, (2014), 252907.
  • Igor Krylov, Roy Winter, Dan Ritter, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Indium Out-Diffusion in Al2O3/InGaAs Stacks during Anneal at Different Ambient Conditions”,  Lett. 104, (2014), 243504.
  • Felix Palumbo, Salvatore Lombardo and Moshe Eizenberg, “Physical Mechanism of Progressive Breakdown in Gate Oxides”,  Phys.115, (2014), 224101.
  • Fadida, P. Shekhter, D. Cvetko, L. Floreano, A. Verdini, L. Nyns, S. Van Elshocht, I. Kymissis, and M. Eizenberg, “Direct Observation of Both Contact and Remote Oxygen Scavenging of GeO2in an MOSFET Stack”, J. Appl. Phys. 116, (2014), 164101.
  • Winter, I. Krylov, J. Ahn, P. C. McIntyre, and M. Eizenberg, “The Effect of Post Oxide Deposition Annealing on the Effective Work Function in Metal/Al2O3/InGaAs Gate Stacks”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, (2014), 202103.
  • Igor Krylov, Arkady Gavrilov, Moshe Eizenberg, and Dan Ritter “Indium Outdiffusion and Leakage Degradation in Metal/Al2O3/In53Ga0.47As Capacitors”,  Phys. Lett. 103, (2013), 053502.
  • Pini Shekhter, Shlomo Mehari, Dan Ritter and Moshe Eizenberg, “Epitaxial NiInGaAs Formed by Solid State Reaction on In53Ga0.47As: Structural and Chemical Study”,  Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31, (2013), 031205.
  • Roy Winter, Jaesoo Ahn, Paul C. McIntyre, and Moshe Eizenberg, “A New Method for Determining Flat-band Voltage in High Mobility Semiconductors”,  Sci. Technol. B31, (2013), 030604.
  • Lior Kornblum, Pini Shekhter, Yair Slovatizky, Yaron Amouyal, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Composition and Crystallography Dependence of the Work Function: Experiment and Calculations of Pt-Al Alloys”, B 86, (2012), 125305.
  • Igor Krylov, Arkady Gavrilov, Moshe Eizenberg, and Dan Ritter, “Correlation between Ga-O Signature and Midgap States at the Al2O3/In53Ga0.47As Interface”,  Phys. Lett. 101, (2012), 063504.
  • Jonathan Avner Rothschild, Aya Cohen, Anna Brusilovsky, Lior Kornblum, Yaron Kauffmann, Yaron Amuyal, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Fermi Level Tuning Using the Hf-Ni Alloy System as a Gate Electrode in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices”,  Phys. 112, (2012), 013717.
  • Lior Kornblum, Boris Meyler, Catherine Cytermann, Svetlana Yofis, Joseph Salzman and Moshe Eizenberg, “Investigation of the Band Offsets Caused by Thin Al2O3Layers in HfO2Based Si Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices”,  Lett. 100, (2012), 062907.
  • Lior Kornblum, Yair Paska, Jonathan A. Rothschild, Hossam Haick, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Probing the Electrostatics of Self-Assembled Monolayers by Means of Beveled Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures”,  Lett. 99, (2011), 233508.
  • Also featured in  of Nanoscale Sci & Tech., 25(2012).
  • Jaesoo Ahn, Irina Geppert, Marika Gunji, Martin Holland, Iain Thayne, Moshe Eizenberg, and Paul C. McIntyre, “Titania/Alumina Bilayer Gate Insulators for InGaAs Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices”,  Lett. 99, (2011), 232902.
  • Pini Shekhter, Zuoguang Liu, Lior Kornblum, Sharon Cui, T. P. Ma and Moshe Eizenberg, “Effect of Hydrogen on the Chemical Bonding and Band Structure at the Al2O3/In53Ga0.47As Interface”, Phys. Lett. 99, (2011), 232103.
  • Zuoguang Liu, Sharon Cui, Pini Shekhter, Xiao Sun, Lior Kornblum, Jie Yang, Moshe Eizenberg, K.S. Chang-Liao, and T. P. Ma, “Effect of H on Interface Properties of Al2O3/In53Ga0.47As”,  Phys. Lett. 99, (2011), 222104.
  • Igor Krylov, Arkady Gavrilov, Dan Ritter, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Elimination of the Weak Inversion Hump in Si3N4/InGaAs (001) Gate Stacks Using an in situNH3Pre-Treatment”,  Lett. 99, (2011), 203504.
  • Lior Kornblum, Jonathan A. Rothschild, Yaron Kauffmann, Reuven Brener, and Moshe Eizenberg, “Band Offsets and Fermi Level Pinning at Metal-Al2O3Interfaces”,  B. 84, (2011), 155317.
  • Lipp, Z. Shahar, B.C. Bittel, P.M. Lenahan, D. Schwendt, H.J. Osten, and M. Eizenberg, “Trap-Assisted Conduction in Pt-Gated Gd2O3/Si Capacitors”,   Appl. Phys. 109, (2011), 073724.
  • Rothschild and M. Eizenberg, “Tuning of Fermi Level Position at HfNx/SiO2Interface”,  Phys. Lett., 94, (2009), 081905.
  • Darshan D. Gandhi, Michael Lane, Yu Zhou, Sarij Nayak, Ulrike Tisch, Moshe Eizenberg, and Ganapathiraman Ramanath, “Annealing-Induced Large Interfacial Toughening Using a Molecular Nanolayer Glue”, Nature, 447, (2007), 299.
  • Marom, J. Mullin and M. Eizenberg, “Size Dependent Resistivity of Nanometric Copper Wires”, Rev. B,74, (2006), 045411.
  • Marom and M. Eizenberg, “The Temperature Dependence of Resistivity in Thin Metal Films”, Appl. Phys.,96, (2004), 3319.
  • Emelianov, G. Ganesan, A. Puzic, S. Schulz, M. Eizenberg, H.-U. Habermeier, H. Stoll, “Investigation of Electromigration in Copper Interconnects by Noise Measurements”, In: Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5112: Noise as a Tool for Studying Materials, Ed. M.B. Weissmann, N.E. Israeloff, A.S. Kogan (SPIE, Bellingham, WA 2003), p. 271.
  • Ecke, S. Riedel, S.E. Schulz, E. Lipp, T. Gessner and M. Eizenberg, “Deposition and Treatment of Titanium Based Barrier Layers by MOCVD”,  Soc. Proc. 2003-08(Pennington, New-Jersey, 2003) pp. 1224-1230.
  • Gopal Ganesan and M. Eizenberg, “Chemical Vapor Deposited RuOxFilms: Interfacial Adhesion Study”,  Sci. and Eng. B 103(2003) 213.
  • Eizenberg, “Introduction: Interlayer Dielectrics in Microelectronic Devices”, in: Interlayer Dielectrics for Semiconductor Technologies, Ed. S.P. Murarka, M. Eizenberg, and A.K. Sinha (Elsevier, 2003), p. 1.
  • Kohn, M. Eizenberg, and Y. Shacham-Diamand, “Structure of Electroless Deposited Co0.9W0.02P0.08Thin Films and their Evolution with Thermal Annealing”,  Appl. Phys. 94, (2003), 3810.
  • Kohn, M. Eizenberg, and Y. Shacham-Diamand, “Copper Grain Boundary Diffusion in Electroless Deposited Cobalt Based Films and its Influence on Diffusion Barrier Integrity for Copper Metallization”,  Appl. Phys., 94, (2003), 3015.
  • Danek, M. Liao, J. Tseng, K. Littau, D. Saigal, H. Zhang, R. Mosely, and M. Eizenberg, “Resistivity Reduction and Chemical Stabilization of Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposited Titanium Nitride by Nitrogen RF Plasma”, Phys. Lett., 68, (1996), 1015.
  • Eizenberg, M. Heiblum, M.I. Nathan, N. Braslau, and P.M. Mooney, “Barrier Heights and Electrical Properties of MBE Grown Metal – AlGaAs Junctions”, J. Appl. Phys.61, (1987), 1516.
  • Lahav, M. Eizenberg, and Y. Komem, “Interfacial Reactions between Ni Films and GaAs”,  Appl. Phys. 60,(1986), 991.
  • Eizenberg and K.N. Tu, “Formation of Shallow Silicide Contacts of High Schottky Barrier on Si: Alloying Pd and Pt with W vs. Alloying Pd and Pt with Si”, J. Appl. Phys. 53, (1982), 1577.
  • Eizenberg and J.M. Blakley, “Carbon Monolayer Phase Condensation on Ni (111)”, Surface Sci. 82, (1979), 229.
  • The Role of Interfacial Composition on the Electrical Properties of Metal / High-K Dielectric / Semiconductor Interfaces.
  • Tuning of Fermi Level Position at Metal / High-K Dielectric Interfaces.
  • Metal and Metal-Nitride Deposition by Plasma Enhanced Atomic-Layer-Deposition (PE-ALD) for 3D devices.
  • Ferroelectric HfO2-based Thin Films Deposited by PE-ALD for advanced memories.
  • Advanced Schemes for Ohmic Contact Formation on SiGe.