On receiving his doctorate, Prof. Kaplan spent one year as a Humboldt fellow at the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart. He was also a visiting scientist at N.I.S.T. during the summer of 1994, and spent three months as a Minerva Fellow at the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart (1992). In 1995 he joined the Department of Materials Science & Engineering at the Technion. He is a member of the Materials Research Society, the American Ceramic Society and the Israel Microscopy Society.
Microstructural design objectives for metal-ceramic joints and composites are often limited by the nature of the metal-ceramic interface. Two very different materials must be brought into contact with a specific interfacial geometry, and a physico-chemical bond must be formed between them. The process may include the formation of interface phases due to chemical reactions, both between the components and with the process atmosphere. The chemical and mechanical stability of the interface is dependent on the possibility of interface reactions as well as on the interface microstructure, which includes the interfacial discontinuity associated with the change in the chemical bond type. While the properties of metal-ceramic components are sensitively dependent on the properties of the joint forming materials, the structure and quality of the interfacial bond is often the major factor which determines the final macro-properties. An understanding of the chemical nature of the metal-ceramic interface, as well as its microstructure and crystallography, is critical for the successful development of metal-ceramic joints and components.
Two main experimental techniques are adapted to these issues. In the first, contact angles between liquid metals and ceramic substrates are measured in-situ and dynamically, under controlled temperature and gas partial pressures. In addition, the energy of solid-solid interfaces is determined via Winterbottom analysis. Secondly, quantitative high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) are applied to study the metal-ceramic interfaces formed during the wetting experiments. In-situ HRTEM using a TEM hot-stage provides direct information on wetting, reactions, segregation, and ordering at the atomic level.
M. Baram, S. H. Garofalini and W. D. Kaplan, Order in Nanometer Thick Intergranular Films at Au-Sapphire Interfaces, Acta Materialia, 59:5710-5715, 2011.
S. Curiotto, H. Chien, H. Meltzman, P. Wynblatt, G.S. Rohrer, W.D. Kaplan, D. Chatain, Orientation Relationships of Copper Crystals on C-Plane Sapphire, Acta Materialia, 59: 5320–5331 , 2011.
Y. Kauffmann, S.H. Oh, C.T. Koch, A. Hashibon, C. Scheu, M. Rühle, and W.D. Kaplan, Quantitative Analysis of Layering and In-Plane Structural Ordering at an Alumina-Aluminum Solid-Liquid Interface, Acta Materialia, 59: 4378-4386, 2011.
H. Meltzman, D. Chatain, D. Avizemer, T. M. Besmann and W. D. Kaplan, The Equilibrium Crystal Shape of Nickel, Acta Materialia, 59:3473-3483, 2011.
M. Baram, D. Chatain and W.D. Kaplan, Nanometer-Thick Equilibrium Films: The Interface Between Thermodynamics and Atomistics, Science, 332, 206-209, April 8, 2011.
M. Drozdov, Y. Kauffmann, W.C. Carter and W.D. Kaplan, Shape-Controlled Nanopores in Single Crystals, Nanotechnology 21:475301-6, 2010.
S.H. Oh, M.F. Chisholm, Y. Kauffmann, W.D. Kaplan, W. Luo, M. Rühle, C. Scheu, Oscillatory Mass Transport in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Sapphire Nanowires, Science, 380:489-493, 2010.
W. Craig Carter, Mor Baram, Maria Drozdov, and Wayne D. Kaplan, Four Questions About Triple Junctions, Scripta Materialia, 62:894-898, 2010.
H. Meltzman, Y. Kauffmann, P. Thangadurai, M. Drozdov, M. Baram, D. Brandon and W.D. Kaplan, An Experimental Method for Calibration of the Plasmon Mean-Free-Path, Journal of Microscopy, 236:165-173, 2009.
M. Baram and W.D. Kaplan, Quantitative HRTEM Analysis of FIB Prepared Specimens, Journal of Microscopy, 232: 395-405, 2008.
E. Shaffir, I. Riess, and W.D. Kaplan, The Mechanism of Initial De-wetting and Detachment of Thin Au Films on YSZ, Acta Materialia, 57: 248-256, 2008.
M. Drozdov, G. Gur, Z. Atzmon and W. D. Kaplan, Detailed investigation of ultrasonic Al–Cu wire-bonds: I. Intermetallic formation in the as-bonded state, Journal of Materials Science,43:6029-6037, 2008.
M. Baram and W.D. Kaplan,Intergranular Films at Au-Sapphire Interfaces, Journal of Materials Science,44:7775-7784, 2006.
H. Sadan and W.D. Kaplan,Au-Sapphire (0001) Solid-Solid Interfacial Energy, Journal of Materials Science,41: 5099-5107, 2006.
W.D. Kaplan and Y. Kauffmann,Structural Order in Liquids Induced by Interfaces with Crystals,Annual Review of Materials Research,36: 1-48, 2006.
G. Levi and W.D. Kaplan,The Influence of Interfacial Wetting and Adhesion on the Formation of Voids at Metal-Ceramic Interfaces,Journal of Materials Science,41: 817-821, 2006.
L. Miller, A. Avishai and W.D. Kaplan,Solubility Limit of MgO in Al2O3 at 1600°C,Journal of the American Ceramic Society,89: 350-353, 2006.
S.H. Oh, Y. Kauffmann, C. Scheu, W.D. Kaplan and M. Ruhle,Ordered Liquid Aluminum at the Interface with Sapphire,Science,310: 661-663, 2005.
Y. Kauffmann, A. Rečnik and W.D. Kaplan,The Accuracy of Quantitative Image Matching For HRTEM Applications,Materials Characterization,54:194-205, 2005.
A. Avishai and W.D. Kaplan,Intergranular Films at Metal-Ceramic Interfaces: Part II – Calculation of Hamaker Coefficients, Acta Materialia,53:1571-1581, 2005.
A. Avishai, C. Scheu, and W.D. Kaplan,Intergranular Films at Metal-Ceramic Interfaces: Part I – Interface Structure & Chemistry, Acta Materialia,53:1559-1569, 2005.
G. Levi and W.D. Kaplan,Aluminium-Alumina Interface Morphology and Thermodynamics from Dewetting Experiments, Acta Mater.,51:2793-2802, 2003.
G. Levi & W.D. Kaplan,Oxygen Induced Interfacial Phenomena During Wetting of Alumina by Liquid Aluminium,Acta Materialia50: 75-88, 2002.
G. Levi, C. Scheu, and W.D. Kaplan,Segregation of Aluminium at Nickel-Sapphire Interfaces,Interface Science,9:213-220, 2001.
A. Hashibon, J. Adler, M.W. Finnis, and W.D. Kaplan,Ordering at Solid-Liquid Interfaces Between Dissimilar Materials, Interface Science,9:175-181, 2001.
C. Scheu, G. Dehm, and W. D. Kaplan,Equilibrium Amorphous Si-Ca-O-Films at Interfaces in Copper-Alumina Composites Prepared by Melt-Infiltration,J. Am. Ceram. Soc.,84:623-630, 2001.
M. Lieberthal and W.D. Kaplan,Processing and Properties of Al2O3 Nanocomposites Reinforced with Sub-Micron Ni and NiAl2O4,Mat. Sci. & Eng. A,302:83-91, 2001.
G. Levi, W.D. Kaplan and M. Bamberger,Structure Refinement of TiCN, Materials Letters,35:344-350, 1998.
W.D. Kaplan, H. Müllejans, M. Rühle, J. Rödel, and N. Claussen,Ca Segregation To Basal Surfaces in a-Alumina,J. Am. Ceram. Soc.,78:2841-2844, 1995.
Books & Chapters:
D.G. Brandon and W.D. Kaplan, Second Edition (completely revised) of Microstructural Characterization of Materials, in press, John Wiley & Sons, London, October, 2007.
W.D. Kaplan and A. Avishai, Processing & Microstructural Control of Metal Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Nanocomposites, Chapter in “Ceramic-Matrix Composites: Microstructure/Property Relationship”, Edited by J.M. Low, Woodhead Publishing, pp. 285-308, February 2006.
D.G. Brandon and W.D. Kaplan, Microstructural Characterization of Materials, John Wiley & Sons, London, May, 1999.
D.G. Brandon and W.D. Kaplan, Joining Processes, John Wiley & Sons, London, 1997.
In-Situ Dynamic Wetting and Interfaces Between Doped Metals and Ceramics
Equilibrium Films at Metal-Ceramic Interfaces
Ordering in Liquids Adjacent to Crystalline Substrates
Occlusion Mechanisms for Nanocomposite Processing
Automated Structure Analysis of Planar Defects by Quantitative High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy
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